A Nephrologist specialist is an Internal Medicine, or for children - a Pediatric, medical doctor with additional qualifications enabling specialization in the evaluation and management of disorders of the kidney. This may include conditions such as pyelonephritis/inflammation, high blood pressure, cancer, fluid and electrolyte or mineral balance, and dialysis when the kidneys are failing whether on a short term or chronic basis. This specialist consults with General surgeons about procedures such as biopsy or kidney transplantation. In addition, Pediatric Nephrology deals with development and maturation disorders of the kidney and urinary tract.