Obstetrics and Gynecology is a surgical specialty, with the medical doctor acquiring additional qualifications enabling specialization in the management of women’s health, diagnosing and treating conditions of the reproductive system and associated conditions. Gynecologists are surgeons who diagnose and treat diseases of the female reproductive system. Examples of surgeries include hysterectomy or removal of the uterus and tubal ligation (tying tubes) for permanent contraception, but these specialists also may provide routine care including well women exams, Pap smears and breast examinations. They may further specialize in gynecologic oncology (cancers of the reproductive organs) or reproductive endocrinology (infertility problems). Gynecologists may also practice Obstetrics. Obstetricians specialize in the healthcare management of pregnant women, from conception through delivery and the immediate period following delivery (postpartum). Obstetricians can choose additional specialization focusing on high-risk pregnancies and fetal development via the Perinatology or Maternal Fetal Medicine specialty.