Urology is a specific surgical specialty, with the medical doctor acquiring additional qualifications enabling specialization in the surgical management of diseases of the urinary system in men and women as well as specific disorders of the male reproductive system. Conditions managed include recurrent urinary tract infections, poor bladder control (incontinence) and urinary tumors or stones in the urinary system. Male reproductive system issues include benign prostatic hyperplasia and impotence (erectile dysfunction). Pediatric urologists specialize in diagnosing and treating urinary problems in children such as undescended testes, underdeveloped genitalia and other congenital abnormalities of the genito-urinary tract, and difficulties with urination.

A subspecialist in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery is a speciaist in Obstetrics and Gynecology or Urology who after acquiring additional qualifications provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment of women with complex pelvic conditions such as pelvic floor dysfunction.